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Template:Infobox rail line The Blue Line consists of a Template:Convert long trunk line in the Chicago Transit Authority's rapid transit system which extends through Chicago's Loop from O'Hare International Airport at the far northwest end of the city, through downtown via the Milwaukee-Dearborn subway, and across the West Side to its southwest end at Forest Park (Congress). It is the CTA's second busiest rail line, with an average weekday ridership of 164,944 as of February 2012.[1] The route's full length is Template:Convert with a total of 33 stations.Template:Citation needed

The Blue Line and Red Line are the only two routes on the CTA rail system to currently run 24 hours a day. Service between O'Hare and 54th/Cermak no longer operates. The Pink Line now serves all stations on the 54th/Cermak branch.[2] The Blue Line is also the only line with more than one station with the same name. It has two Harlem stations: one in the Kennedy Expressway on the Northwest side, and one on the south side of the Eisenhower Expressway on the West Side. It also has two Western stations: one on the O'Hare Branch and one on the Congress branch. The route also does not share tracks with any other 'L' train services.

Before the adoption of color-coded names, the Blue Line was referred to as the West-Northwest Route (which it is still sometimes referred to as today) or more commonly, the O'Hare-Congress-Douglas route for its three branches. The Congress and Douglas branches were renamed for their respective terminals, Forest Park and 54th/Cermak, when the current color naming system was adopted in 1993. As of May 2008, Blue Line service to 54/Cermak no longer operates; it has been replaced with the new Pink Line.[2]

RouteEdit

O'Hare BranchEdit

File:CTA blue line O'Hare.jpg

The O'Hare Branch is the longest section of the Blue Line (Template:Convert) and comprises the oldest and newest segments of the entire route. It begins at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport underneath the main parking garage. It runs in subway to a portal location in the airport grounds then climbs to the surface in the median of the O'Hare main access road (Interstate 190) about a mile (1.6 km) west of Mannheim Road. The rapid transit line follows Interstate 190 east through Rosemont then tunnels beneath the Kennedy Expressway/Northwest Tollway interchange near the Des Plaines River and continues in the median of the Kennedy Expressway Interstate 90) east and southeast towards the city to another subway portal just south of Addison Street. The line then runs in a short subway connection (built in 1970) under Kimball and Milwaukee Avenues through Logan Square to another portal. Here, the line climbs onto elevated structure paralleling Milwaukee Avenue (built in 1895) and continuing southeast towards downtown Chicago.Template:Citation needed

Milwaukee-Dearborn SubwayEdit

At the intersection of Ashland and Milwaukee Avenues, the Blue Line descends into Chicago's second subway route, continuing southeast under Milwaukee Avenue, east under Lake Street (crossing beneath the Chicago River) south under Dearborn Street (through the central business district) and west under Congress Parkway (and a second river crossing). The tracks emerge from a portal near Halsted Street in the median of the Eisenhower Expressway (Interstate 290) and continue west.

A downtown superstation has been proposed to provide express service from the Loop to O'Hare and Midway Airport, via the Blue and Orange Line. The station would provide services such as baggage check. However, budget issues plague the operation and have prevented construction.[3]

Congress BranchEdit

File:Eisenhower Expressway.jpg

After exiting the subway, the tracks continue west in the median of the Eisenhower Expressway as the Congress Branch. Immediately west of the Racine station, the Congress tracks diverge to permit a ramp up to the Douglas Branch elevated structure. This ramp, which is now non-revenue trackage, connects the Douglas branch to the Blue Line. The Congress Branch remains in the median of the expressway through the west side of Chicago until it reaches a portal at Lotus. At this point the tracks tunnel beneath the eastbound expressway lanes and before emerging on the south side of the expressway next to the Baltimore and Ohio Chicago Terminal Railroad (CSX) tracks. The route passes through Oak Park and into Forest Park. In the vicinity of Desplaines Avenue the tracks rise and make an S-curve north over the expressway before terminating at a station on the west side of Desplaines Avenue.

Former BranchesEdit

Douglas BranchEdit

The Douglas Branch begins at 54th Avenue and Cermak Road in Cicero (5400 W. - 2200 S.). The line runs east on street level right-of-way just north of and parallel to Cermak Road from the terminal to about a quarter-mile (400 m) east of Cicero Avenue, then diagonals northeast until it reaches a corridor parallel and adjacent to 21st Street at Kostner Avenue. It then continues east between 21st Street and Cullerton Street, climbing up from surface level to elevated structure, through the North Lawndale, Little Village, and Pilsen neighborhoods of Chicago, with stops at Kostner, Pulaski, Central Park, Kedzie, California, Western and Damen. The line turns north near Paulina Street stopping at 18th and Polk Streets then curves east over the Eisenhower Expressway (Interstate 290). The Douglas tracks ramps down to the surface of the median of the expressway and joins the Congress (Forest Park) Branch just before the Racine station. On April 28, 2008, the CTA eliminated Blue Line service on the Douglas branch, having been replaced by the Pink Line.[4]

Operating fleet Edit

Currently, the Blue Line is operated with Budd-built 2200-series and 2600-series rail cars. These cars are typically trained together because the older 2200-series cars have "blinker doors" that open inward and are not ADA compliant. They are scheduled for retirement when enough of the new Bombardier-built 5000-series cars are delivered. With the first 5000-series cars officially entering revenue service on the Pink Line starting November 2011, some of the 2200-series cars have been replaced with additional 2600-series cars in the Blue Line fleet.

HistoryEdit

The most vintage components of the Blue Line began as part of the Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railroad in 1895. The first section to be built by this company extended west in the vicinity of Van Buren Street from an independent terminal at Canal and Jackson Streets to Marshfield Avenue, and thence northward in the vicinity of Paulina Street to Damen and Milwaukee Avenues. Service on this section was started May 6, 1895.[5] The structure was completed from Damen Avenue to Logan Square on May 25, 1895.Template:Citation needed

The next stage in the development of the West Side 'L' came on June 19, 1895, when the Garfield Park Branch was added, extending west in the vicinity of Van Buren Street and Harrison Street from Marshfield Avenue to Cicero Avenue.[6] An extension of service over the tracks of the Aurora, Elgin and Chicago Railroad to a new terminal at Forest Park was established on March 11, 1905. A subsequent extension to Westchester opened on October 1, 1926.[7] (Service on the Westchester extension was discontinued by the CTA on December 9, 1951.[7])

Another branch line was added to the rapidly growing Metropolitan System on July 29, 1895, when trains began operating over the Humboldt Park Branch, paralleling North Avenue from Damen Avenue to a terminal at Lawndale Avenue. (The route was discontinued on May 3, 1952.[8]) This was followed by still another addition when the Douglas Park Branch was placed in operation as far south as 18th Street on April 28, 1896.[9]

As the southwest area of the city developed, the Douglas Park Branch was extended from 18th Street to Western Avenue in September 1896; to Pulaski Road in June, 1902; to Cicero Avenue in December 1907; to Central Avenue in August, 1912; to 62nd Avenue in August, 1915, and to Oak Park Avenue in Berwyn on March 16, 1924. The present west terminal of the Douglas Branch is 54th Avenue, Cicero. Template:Citation needed

The Metropolitan West Side Elevated began service around the Union Loop on October 11, 1897,[10] and a rush period stub terminal at Wells Street was added October 3, 1904. For much of the early 20th century and through the 1940s, service on the West Side Elevated lines went unchanged until the Chicago Transit Authority took control of Chicago's Rapid Transit System in October, 1947, initiating a series of massive service curtailments and station closings (that would last until the 1980s).Template:Citation needed

On February 25, 1951, Chicago's second subway route (#2), Milwaukee-Dearborn, was placed in operation by CTA, connecting the Milwaukee Avenue elevated route (formerly Logan Square) with the Central Business District on a fast, efficient and more direct routing through the heart of the city.[11] With opening of the Dearborn Subway, the old elevated alignment between Evergreen and Marshfield Avenues was therefore closed and used only for moving out-of-service rail cars. The north section of this connection between Evergreen Avenue and Lake Street was subsequently demolished in 1960s, leaving the Lake Street Branch-to-Douglas Branch section or the "Paulina Connector" still in existence.Template:Citation needed

The Garfield Park elevated was replaced by the Congress route on June 22, 1958,[12] pioneering the world's first use of rail rapid transit and a multi-lane automobile expressway in the same grade-separated right-of-way.[13] (Pacific Electric Railway "Red Car" tracks ran in the median of the Cahuenga Parkway in Los Angeles from 1944 until its expansion into the Hollywood Freeway in 1952, but the Pacific Electric service was an interurban streetcar rather than true rapid transit.) The new line connected with the Milwaukee-Dearborn Subway at the Chicago River and extended westward to Des Plaines Avenue, Forest Park. An incline connection en route permitted Douglas trains to operate through the subway as well combining the Logan Square, Garfield Park (now Congress), and Douglas routes into the second through service in Chicago, the West-Northwest route.[14]

A five-mile (8 km) extension of the route via the short subway connection and the Kennedy Expressway median between Logan Square and Jefferson Park was added on February 1, 1970. It was also built by the City of Chicago using federal monies. From Logan Square, trains veers off of the old elevated structure and enters the subway under Milwaukee and Kedzie Avenues to a portal just south of Addison Street, then continues northwest in the median of the Kennedy Expressway to the temporary terminal at Jefferson Park. In March 1980, construction began on the O'Hare Airport extension of the Kennedy route between Jefferson Park and the airport. The first section between Jefferson Park and Rosemont was placed in service on February 27, 1983,Template:Citation needed and the final section to O'Hare International Airport on September 3, 1984.[15]

In 1993, the Chicago Transit Authority adopted a color-coded naming system to the rapid transit system, and the West-Northwest route (OHare-Congress/Douglas) became the Blue Line. On April 26, 1998, the Douglas Branch lost its overnight (owl) and weekend service and began operating between 4 a.m. (04:00) and 1 a.m. (01:00) on weekdays only as a result of funding shortages requiring CTA cut services. Congress (Forest Park) service was effectively doubled through much of the day since service frequency from O'Hare required shorter headways than what would have been left.Template:Citation needed

One reason for the Douglas Branch reduction in service was due to its low ridership, badly deteriorated condition, and funding problems, while many residents in the communities it runs through had claimed that it was just another attempt by the CTA to deter transit service on the West Side.Template:Citation needed

In September 2001, the CTA began a historic reconstruction of the Douglas Branch to repair its aging infrastructure. The work was officially completed on January 5, 2005 with new elevated structures, track, stations, new communication networks and an upgraded traction power system along the route. On January 1, 2005, weekend service was restored.Template:Citation needed

On July 11, 2006, a rear derailment caused a smokey fire in the Blue Line's Milwaukee-Dearborn Subway. There were injuries from smoke inhalation, but no fatalities. The comparatively minor incident prompted heavy news coverage and a temporary stoppage of Chicago subway service because it occurred hours after train bombings in Mumbai earlier the same day.Template:Citation needed

ExpansionEdit

Line extensions Edit

For the past twenty years, there had been talk of extending the O'Hare branch of the Blue Line westward to Schaumburg, but this has recently been changed with the recent developments involving the planning of the Metra STAR Line and various other transportation projects.

However, in 2008, the Regional Transit Authority revealed a plan to possibly expand commuter rail and bus service to the RTA board, which included a Template:Convert extension of the Blue Line on an east-west route from its current western terminus at Forest Park to as far west as the Yorktown shopping center in DuPage County. Several feeder bus routes would also be implemented along the route in order to supplement ridership and increase usefulness. The prospect of this extension was also listed in the Chicago region's 2030 long-term master plan.[16]

Extra tracks Edit

Main article: Chicago Aurora and Elgin Railroad

The surface right-of-way for the Congress Branch, including overcrossings, undergrade bridges, and two short tunnels under the expressway, contains space for one extra track between Forest Park and Kenton Avenue, and two extra tracks from Kenton to the tunnel portals at UIC-Halstead. It was intended that the interurban Chicago Aurora and Elgin Railroad, which had utilized the Garfield Park Elevated until 1953 to reach its Loop terminal at Wells Street, would use these extra tracks. However, the CA&E ceased passenger service abruptly on July 3, 1957, never to resume, before track construction had started.[17] The CTA also considered plans of its own to add these as express tracks (and service) over the years, as well as a rerouting of the Lake Elevated onto the Paulina Elevated (today's Pink Line) into a new quadrant of the junction with the Douglas Line at Racine, but these plans also never came to fruition.[18]

Stub tunnels Edit

The dual portals of the Congress Branch at UIC-Halstead are actually quadruple; two extra portals also exist to the north of the Blue Line portals, which extend only a few hundred feet beyond the portals, These were intended to accommodate future expansion, including a new CA&E line to a new terminal, or for a variety of later CTA new line proposals which were never realized.[19]

Between Grand and Clark/Lake in the Milwaukee-Dearborn Subway, two more stub tunnels also exist, continuing straight while the current Blue Line heads in the northwest direction. This flying junction (actually a stacked flying junction), built in the 1940s along with the initial subway, was intended for a never-built connection to, or subway replacement of, the Lake Elevated.[20]

Points of interestEdit

File:Gateway Theatre (Chicago).jpg
The Blue Line serves as a vital link to various airline destinations from the O'Hare International Airport (O'Hare), Rosemont Convention Center and Allstate Arena (Rosemont), the Gateway Theatre, James R. Thompson Center (Clark/Lake), City Hall-Cook County Building and the Richard J. Daley Center (Washington), Bank One Plaza (Monroe), the Federal Center Buildings (Jackson), La Salle Street Metra Station (La Salle), Amtrak and Metra Union Station, Main Post Office and Greyhound Lines station (Clinton), University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC-Halsted and Racine), UIC Pavilion (Racine) Cook County Hospital, Malcolm X College and the United Center (Illinois Medical District), Oak Park (Austin and Oak Park), and Forest Park (Harlem and Forest Park) among others and several outlying Metra train stations (Jefferson Park, and Irving Park).

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Station listingEdit

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File:Chicago L Map.svg
Blue Line (O'Hare branch)
Station Location Points of interest and notes
O'Hare Template:Access icon 20px 1000 O'Hare Drive, Chicago O'Hare International Airport
Rosemont Template:Access icon 20px 5801 N River Road, Rosemont Rosemont, Allstate Arena, Donald E. Stephens Convention Center, All Saints and St. Nicholas Cemeteries
Cumberland Template:Access icon 20px 5800 N. Cumberland Avenue, Chicago Park Ridge
Harlem Template:Access icon 20px 5550 N. Harlem Avenue, Chicago Norwood Park, Harlem Irving Plaza
Jefferson Park Template:Access icon15px 4917 N. Milwaukee Avenue, Chicago Jefferson Park, Gateway Theatre, Northwestern Business College, Transfer to Metra Union Pacific Northwest Line
Montrose 15px 4600 W. Montrose Avenue, Chicago Mayfair, Six Corners, Mayfair Pumping Station, Irish American Heritage Center, Transfer to Metra Milwaukee District North Line at Mayfair (Metra)
Irving Park 15px 4131 W. Irving Park Road, Chicago Irving Park, The Villa District, Transfer to Metra Union Pacific Northwest Line
Addison 3622 W. Addison Street, Chicago Avondale, St. Wenceslaus, The Villa District
Belmont 3355 W. Belmont Avenue, Chicago Avondale, St. Hyacinth Basilica
Logan Square Template:Access icon 2620 N. Kedzie Avenue, Chicago Logan Square, Illinois Centennial Monument, Logan Theatre
California 2211 N. California Avenue, Chicago Congress Theater
Western Template:Access icon 1909 N. Western Avenue, Chicago Bucktown, All Saints Polish National Catholic Cathedral, St. Hedwig's Roman Catholic Church, Margie's Candies, Pulaski International School of Chicago
Damen 1558 N. Damen Avenue, Chicago Bucktown, Wicker Park, Northwest Tower, St. Mary of the Angels Roman Catholic Church
Blue Line (Milwaukee-Dearborn Subway)
Station Location Points of interest and notes
Division 1200 N. Milwaukee Avenue, Chicago Polonia Triangle, Wicker Park, Chopin Theatre, Holy Trinity Polish Mission, St. Stanislaus Kostka Noble Square
Chicago 800 N. Milwaukee Avenue, Chicago St. John Cantius
Grand 502 N. Milwaukee Avenue, Chicago Closed February 9, 1992; Reopened June 25, 1999
Clark/Lake Template:Access icon 124 W. Lake Street, Chicago James R. Thompson Center, Richard J. Daley Center, Chicago City Hall

Transfer station for Orange, Green, Purple, Brown, and Pink Lines

Washington 127 N. Dearborn Street, Chicago Richard J. Daley Center, Chicago Picasso, Cook County Administration Building, Goodman Theatre

Former transfer station for the Red Line.

Monroe 30 S. Dearborn Street, Chicago Inland Steel Building
Jackson Template:Access icon 312 S. Dearborn Street, Chicago Kluczynski Federal Building, Flamingo, Harold Washington Library Center

Transfer station for Red Line and Brown, Orange, Pink, and Purple Lines via Harold Washington Library – State/Van Buren

LaSalle 15px 150 W. Congress Parkway, Chicago Metropolitan Correctional Center, LaSalle Street Station, Chicago Stock Exchange
Clinton 15px 426 S. Clinton Street, Chicago Union Station, Greyhound Terminal, Old Chicago Main Post Office
Blue Line (Forest Park "Congress" branch)
Station Location Points of interest and notes
UIC–Halsted Template:Access icon 430 S. Halsted Street, Chicago University of Illinois at Chicago, Greektown, St. Ignatius Historic landmark
Racine 430 S. Racine Avenue, Chicago UIC Pavilion, Little Italy, Whitney M. Young Magnet High School

Former transfer point for Forest Park and 54/Cermak bound trains

Illinois Medical District Template:Access icon 430 S. Damen Avenue, Chicago Illinois Medical District, United Center- Home of the Chicago Bulls and the Chicago Blackhawks, Malcolm X College, Cook County Hospital, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center
Western 430 S. Western Avenue Crane Tech Prep High School
California 430 S. California Avenue, Chicago Closed September 2, 1973
Kedzie–Homan Template:Access icon 530 S. Kedzie Avenue, Chicago Our Lady of Sorrows Basilica, Former Sears, Roebuck, and Company Headquarters, John Marshall Metropolitan High School
Pulaski 530 S. Pulaski Road, Chicago Chicago Public Library Legler Branch
Kostner 530 S. Kostner Avenue Closed September 2, 1973
Cicero 720 S. Cicero Avenue, Chicago
Central 720 S. Central Avenue, Chicago Closed September 2, 1973
Austin 1050 S. Austin Boulevard, Oak Park Columbus Park
Oak Park 950 S. Oak Park Avenue, Oak Park Oak Park, Oak Park Conservatory
Harlem 701 S. Harlem Avenue, Forest Park Ferrara Pan Candy Company
Forest Park Template:Access icon 20px 711 S. Desplaines Avenue, Forest Park Forest Park, Forest Home Cemetery

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ReferencesEdit

Template:Chicago Les:Línea Azul (Metro de Chicago) fr:Ligne bleue (Chicago Transit Authority) nl:Blauwe lijn (metro van Chicago) pt:Linha Azul (Metro de Chicago)